CULTURA CASTREXA PDF

Galego: Extensión e xeografía da Galiza castrexa, xunto con localización das oppida (elaborado a partir de Rodríguez Corral, J. A Galicia. View Academics in Cultura Castrexa on A cultura castrexa (Historia de Galicia) [Francisco Calo Lourido] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

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Bracara Augusta later became the capital of the Roman province of Gallaeciawhich encompassed all the lands once part of the Castro culture.

Castro metallurgy refined the metals from ores and cast them to make various tools. Andologensi Greeks Interamici Turmodigi Varduli. In essence, the main characteristic of this formative period is the assumption by the community of a larger authority at the expense of the elites, reflected in the minor importance of prestige items production, while the collective invested important resources and labour in the communal spaces and defences.

Gold, iron, copper, tin and lead were the most common ores mined. A sculpted stone reused in a 6th-century Suevic church in Dume, Braga Old reused stone slab, now in exposition in Formigueiros, AmoeiroGalicia. There is a cividade toponym in Bragaa citadel established by Augustus, although there are no archaeological findings apart from an ancient parish name and pre-Roman baths.

Archaeological finds such as ceremonial axes decorated with animal sacrificial scenes, together with the severed head sculptures and the testimonies of classical authors, confirms the ceremonial sacrifice of animals, [48] and probably including human sacrifice as well, as among Lusitanians and Gauls.

Gates to these oppida become monumental and frequently have sculptures of warriors.

A CULTURA CASTREXA by Manuela Fernández Garrido on Prezi

Pollen analyses confirms the Iron Age as a period of intense deforestation in Galicia and Northern Portugal, with meadows and fields expanding at the expense of woodland. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. On the role of agency, memory and identity in the construction of space from the Upper Palaeolithic to the Iron Age in Europe. Decorative motifs include rosettestriskelionsswastikasspiralsinterlacesas well as palm tree, herring bone and string motives, cultuea of which were still carved in Romanesque churches, castfexa are still used today in local folk art and traditional items in Galicia, Portugal and northern Spain.

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Head sculptures, Museo de Pontevedra. Whilst the onomastic formula among the Celtiberians usually is composed by a first name followed by a patronymic expressed as a genitive, and sometimes a reference to the gensthe Castro people complete name was composed as this:.

Retrieved 16 July This deity has not been recorded in the castrxea areas as Bandua, Reue and Nabia deities occur, and El Bierzo follows the same pattern as in the coast. Retrieved June 14, Pre-Roman peoples established into Spain. While the 1st century BCE represents an era of expansion and maturity for the Castro Culture, under Roman influence and with the local economy apparently powered more than hindered by Roman commerce and wars, during the next century ckltura control of Roma became political and military, and for the first time in more than a millennium new unfortified settlements were established in the plains and valleys, at the same time that numerous hill-forts and cities were abandoned.

Funerary rites are mostly unknown except at few places, such as Cividade de Terrosocsstrexa cremation was practised. Universidade de Santiago de Compostela. Head sculptures, Museo de Pontevedra Votive sacrificial bronze, with a cauldron and a torc, Museo de Pontevedra. Bandua had a warlike character and a defender of local communities. Ancient Roman military presence in the south and east of the Iberian Peninsula since the 2nd century BC would have reinforced the role of ucltura autochthonous warrior elites, with better access to local prestige items and importations.

Castro culture

The artificial defences were initially composed of earthen walls, battlements and ditches, which enclosed an inner habitable space. Retrieved from ” https: At the same time, the archaeological register shows, through the finding of large quantities of fibulaepinspincers for hair extraction, pendantsearringstorcsbracelets castrex, and other personal objects, the ongoing importance of the individual and his or her physical appearance.

Clutura animals like deer or boars were frequently chased. Conceptualising Space and Place: Castro sculpture also reveal that locals carved these figures in wood items, such as chairs, and weaved them vastrexa their clothes. Reconstructed hut cultuga a larger family nucleus in the Santa Tegra oppida Galicia.

Cividade de Bagunte was one of the largest cities with 50 hectares. Pottery was produced locally in a variety of styles, although wealthier people also possessed imported Mediterranean products.

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From the Mondego river up to the Minho riveralong the coastal areas of northern Portugal, during the last two centuries of the second millennium BCE a series of settlements were established in high, well communicated places, [6] radiating from a core area north of the Mondego, and usually specializing themselves in the production of Atlantic Bronze Age metallurgy: More numerous are the votive inscriptions caztrexa to the autochthonous CosusBanduaNabiaand Reue.

Bandua, Reue and Nabia were worshipped in the core area of Lusitania including Northern Extremadura to Beira Baixa and Northern Lusitania and reaching inland Galicia, the diffusion of these gods throughout the whole of the northern interior area shows a cultural continuity with Central Lusitania.

During the initial centuries of the first millennium BC bronze was still the most used metal, although iron was progressively introduced. As stated, while Bronze Age economy was based on the exploitation and exportation of mineral local acstrexa, tin and copper and on mass production and long range distribution of prestige items, Iron Age economy was based on an economy of necessity goods, [18] as most items and productions were obtained in cukturaor interchanged thought short range commerce.

Hallstatt D, dated by means of castreca fibulae from to BC In the 1st century AD, more thanpeople were living in the main area of the Castro culture, in hill forts and oppida.

Despite its name, the network includes, for the time being, only Portuguese partners, and froze the idea to world heritage candidacy to UNESCO, given the disparities in archaeological research, and the necessity to create visitation and promotion conditions.

Castro culture – Wikipedia

Hundreds of Latin inscriptions have survived with dedications to gods and goddesses. The deity probably had an association with water, the sky and the earth. During the initial Iron Age the local artisans stopped producing some of the most characteristic Bronze Age items castrxa as carp tongue, leaf shaped and rapier swordsdouble ringed axes, breastplates and most jewellery.