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Full text of “Elektor – Circuits”

The circuit will generate a squarewave with a sv 33 2 frequency between 20 Hz and 1 MHz. A conventional IF transformer is used to determine the frequency, The alignment generator is tuned to the correct frequency by passing eletkor output signal through a ceramic Ekektor filter.

The most useful way of doing this is to frequency-scale the input signal, by means of a bucket-brigade ana- logue delay lineso that the display fits in nicely with the available sweep speed. Should the output voltage of the regulator tend to fall then the lower end of D 5 will fall below 0 V and transistor T3 will draw more current. This ensures that when the relay drops out due to the lamp being switched off the LED does not light, since its supply is also disconnected.

The circuit can be extended for use as a light or- gan.

301 Circuits (300 Series) by Elektor Electronics Paperback Book The Fast

The disadvantage is that bat- teries of ceils cannot be charged. With a supply volt- age of 15 V R2 is thus ft these are nearest preferred resistors to actual values. However, if any signifi- cant current is drawn the output voltage will quickly fall, as shown in figure lb. Any desired initial circuitx can be programmed in BCD by connecting the preset inputs of ICl and IC2 to positive supply or supply common. The exact posi- tive- and negative-going output swing achieved depends on the type of opamp used.


The heart of the circuit is a CMOS phase-locked loop which has an ex- tremely wide capture range.

The novel feature of this circuit is slektor it requires only one touch contact. Operation of the circuit is extremely simple. The circuit diagram of the servo polarity changer. The control current through the diodes increases and their dynamic resistance decreases, thus attenuating the output signal. In view of the dramatic drop in the price of crys- 2 tals used in colour TV sets, they now represent an economical way of building an SSB-filter.

The output power of watts may appear a little modest, however the resulting sound will bear full cicuits with anything even the most troublesome of polter- geists can muster. There are two possi- bilities: One of the outputs is selected and fed back to the reset input of the Cirucits, The result is a divider stage that can be set at any division ratio between 2 and 9.

Once the output voltage of the supply has risen to its normal value D7 is reverse-biased, which prevents ripple from the unregulated supply appearing on the output. The current consumption of the preamp is extremely low, typically 1.

When using the circuit the wiring capacitance of any jigs and fixtures used to hold the capacitor should be taken into account cirduits subtracted from the reading.

Operation of elsktor circuit is as follows: However, since the IC is fairly expensive it is recommended that a permanent buffer stage be connected to the out- put. The revised graph of frequency against R and C is shown in the accompanying nomogram.


One of the simplest ways to achieve this electronically is to use an analogue bucket brigade shift register. The principle behind the circuit is illustrated in figure L The inductor, L, prevents AC vircuits from getting back into the DC power supply.

Complementary emitter follower This circuit represents a simple design for one of the most popular types of circujts game, namely a reaction tester. This contrasts with con- ventional circuits where the bases of T 1 and T2 are connected to one another by means of a diode network.

Thus in order to reverse the polarity of the servo one simply arranges for the control pulses to be sub- tracted from a reference pulse of 3 ms.

Braun Automatic mono stereo switch For some time now owners of stereo FM re- ceivers will have noticed that the stereo indicator lamp stays on continuously. Performance The quality of the waveforms can be judged from the oscilloscope photographs. If the reference voltage is exactly 2. The output level can be adjusted by P3. circuist

Because the is a little fussy about the wave- form and eelktor of Us input signal, the input stage of this design is a limiter-amplifier com- paratorThis stage will process a signal of ele,tor shape, that has an amplitude of at least 50 mV, into a form suitable for feeding to the 41 5 L The input of this stage is protected by diodes against voltages up to V p-p. The maxi- mum transmission range is approx.