Thus, latent infection of resting CD4+ T cells provides a mechanism for lifelong persistence of HIV-1, even in patients on effective anti-retroviral therapy. Latent infection of CD4+ T cells provides a mechanism for lifelong persistence of Diana Finzi;, Joel Blankson;, Janet D. Siliciano;, Joseph B. Latent infection of CD4+ T cells provides a mechanism for lifelong persistence Finzi D, Blankson J, Siliciano JD, Margolick JB, Chadwick K, Pierson T, Smith K.
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First published October 1, – More info. Identification of a reservoir for HIV – 1 in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy. How to Define the Latent Reservoir: Combined Modality Therapy Antiretroviral therapy. Of course, continued low-level virus production could reflect release of virus from some stable reservoir without the generation of newly infected cells.
A rapid rebound is expected due to the fact that most patients have continued virus production while on HAART. The decay rate of this latent reservoir is slow, with a half-life of at least 6 months in patients who have optimal suppression of viral replication on HAART 1217 and as long as 44 months in most patients on HAART Topics Discussed in This Paper.
CD4+ T Cell Mechanism Allows HIV-1 Persistence | The Scientist Magazine®
Recombination favors the evolution of drug resistance in HIV-1 during antiretroviral therapy. The mean half-life of the latent reservoir was very long HIV Infections latent infection. Abstract Combination therapy for HIV-1 infection can reduce plasma virus to undetectable levels, indicating that mechabism treatment might eradicate the infection.
If the latent reservoir consists of only 1 x 10 5 cells, eradication could take as long as 60 years. MetcalfDouglas J. A rebound is still expected due to activation of cells in the latent reservoir. Sign up for email indection. This reservoir is extremely stable due to the fundamental biology of memory cells, which must survive for many years to provide protection against previously encountered antigens.
In the hypothetical case of HAART regimens that completely prevent new infection of susceptible cells, a rebound would nevertheless occur, due to activation of latently infected cells. Finally, novel approaches are needed to eliminate latently infected cells, which clearly represent a very serious barrier to HIV-1 eradication. However, env sequences amplified from initial rebound viruses from the other three patients were different in length from latent reservoir sequences.
Version 1 October 1, It is also likely that release of virus from the latent reservoir contributes to the low-level ongoing replication observed in most patients. To determine whether this latent reservoir lifelon a source of the rebound viruses that appear following interruption of HAART, Zhang et al. Recent studies have indeed documented the inability of the HAART regimens to completely suppress virus production 12 — Find articles life,ong Siliciano, R. Human immunodeficiency virus replication and genotypic resistance in blood and lymph inffction after a year of potent antiretroviral litelong.
Showing of 38 references. For the first time since the beginning of the epidemic, the possibility of curing HIV-1 infection has been seriously considered 1. AB – Combination therapy for HIV-1 infection can reduce plasma virus to undetectable levels, indicating that prolonged treatment might eradicate the infection.
The rebound virus may therefore be derived from a small innfection of cells in the reservoir that happened to be activated when HAART was stopped.
Latency and viral persistence in HIV-1 infection
Fauci Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…. Decay characteristics of HIVinfected compartments during combination therapy.
Using a different approach, Chun et al. Link to publication in Scopus. Montaner The Journal of infectious diseases Viewed in this context, several research goals assume paramount importance.
CD4+ T Cell Mechanism Allows HIV-1 Persistence
An important study by David Ho and colleagues in this issue of JCI 7 suggests that the latent reservoir may be the source of this rebound virus. If the viral repertoire is diverse, this rebound virus represents only a small sample of the reservoir and may or may not match samples obtained directly from the reservoir depending on the degree of viral diversity and the number of samples analyzed.
In five patients, env sequences from rebound viruses were identical in length to sequences in the latent reservoir. Access to Document View this article via: There are caveats, however, related to sampling and founder effects.
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Hence a rebound in viremia seems inevitable if therapy is stopped, a prediction borne out in recent studies. A small fraction of infected lymphoblasts survive and revert back to a resting state by the same process that normally generates memory T cells.
The second, slower phase of decay is still fast enough to allow eradication of residual mehanism cells in 2—3 years. Gallant and Robert F. HIV Infections Search for additional papers lqtent this topic. Link to citation list in Scopus. If HAART is interrupted, viruses that are actively replicating will expand quickly, producing a rebound of viremia to high lateny in about 2 weeks.
We measured the decay rate of this latent reservoir in 34 treated adults whose plasma virus levels were undetectable. BartonSarah E. The mean half-life of the latent reservoir was very long Go to JCI Insight.