Hulagu Khan (ca. ) was a Mongol conqueror and the founder of the dynasty of the Il-Khans of Iran. He also suppressed the Ismaili sect and defeated . fifth son of Tolui (and thus grandson of Čengiz Khan) and founder of the R. E. Latham, London and New York, , index s.v. “Hulagu”). Hulagu Khan Destroyed Thousands Of Priceless Ancient Books Kept In The House Of Wisdom In Baghdad. | June 21, | Ancient History.
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Hulagu’s army greatly expanded the southwestern portion of the Mongol Empirefounding the Ilkhanate of Persiaa precursor to the eventual Safavid dynastyand then the modern state of Iran.
Under Hulagu’s leadership, the siege of Baghdad destroyed Baghdad’s standing in the Islamic world and weakened Damascuscausing a shift of Islamic influence to the Mamluk Sultanate in Cairo. Sorghaghtani successfully navigated Mongol politics, arranging for all of her sons to become Mongol leaders. She was a Christian of the Church of the East often referred to as “Nestorianism” and Hulagu was friendly to Christianity.
Hulagu’s favorite wife, Doquz Khatunwas also a Christian, as was his closest friend and general, Kitbuqa. It is recorded however that he converted to Buddhism as he neared death,  against the will of Doquz Khatun. Hulagu had at least three children: Abaqa KhanTekuderand Taraqai.
His daughter-in-law, Absh Khatunwas sent to Shiraz to reign in Hulagu’s campaign sought the subjugation of the Lurs of southern Iran, the destruction of the Assassinsthe submission or destruction of the Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdadthe submission or destruction of the Ayyubid states in Syria based in Damascusand finally, the submission or destruction of the Bahri Mamluke Sultanate of Egypt. Hulagu vigorously carried out the latter part of these instructions.
Hulagu’s Mongol army set out for Baghdad in November Once near the city he divided his forces to threaten the city on both the east and west banks of the Tigris. Hulagu demanded surrender, but the caliph, Al-Musta’simrefused. The attacking Mongols broke dikes and flooded the ground behind the caliph’s army, trapping them.
Much of the army was slaughtered or drowned. The Mongols under Chinese general Guo Kan laid siege to the city on January 29, constructing a palisade and a ditch and halaiu up siege engines and catapults.
Siege of Baghdad (1258)
The battle was short by siege standards. By February 5 the Mongols controlled a stretch of the wall. The caliph tried to negotiate but was refused. On February 10 Halaki surrendered. The Mongols swept into the city on February 13 and hxlaku a week of destruction.
The Grand Library of Baghdadcontaining countless precious historical documents and books on subjects ranging from medicine to astronomy, was destroyed. Survivors said that the waters of the Tigris ran black with ink from the enormous quantity of books flung into the river.
Citizens attempted to flee but were intercepted by Mongol soldiers. Death counts vary widely and cannot be easily substantiated: A low estimate is about 90, dead;  higher estimates range fromto a million. Mosques, palaces, libraries, hospitals — grand buildings that had been the work of generations — were burned to the ground.
The caliph was captured and forced to watch as his citizens were murdered and his treasury plundered. Il Milionea book on the travels of Venetian merchant Marco Polostates that Hulagu starved the caliph to death, but there is no corroborating evidence for that.
Most historians believe the Mongol and Muslim accounts that the caliph was rolled up in a rug and the Mongols rode their horses over him, as they believed that the earth would be offended if touched by royal blood.
All but one of his sons were killed. Baghdad was a depopulated, ruined city for several centuries. Smaller states in the region hastened to reassure Hulagu of their loyalty, and the Mongols turned to Syria inconquering the Ayyubid dynasty and sending advance patrols as far ahead as Gaza. A thousand squads of northern Chinese sappers accompanied the Mongol Khan Hulagu during his conquest of the Middle East.
Khqn force conquered Muslim Syria, a domain of the Ayyubid dynasty.
Many historical accounts describe the three Christian rulers Hetum, Bohemond, and Kitbuqa entering the city of Damascus together in triumph,   though some modern historians such as David Morgan have questioned this story as apocryphal.
The invasion effectively destroyed the Ayyubids, which was until then a powerful dynasty that had ruled large parts of the LevantEgyptand the Arabian Peninsula. Hulagu intended to continue southward through Palestine towards Cairo to fight the Mamluks.
He sent a threatening letter to the Mamluk Sultan Qutuz in Cairo. He demanded that Qutuz open Cairo or it would be destroyed like Baghdad. At that moment Mongke Khan died, so Hulagu, as an heir and potential Great Khan, was obliged to return to Mongolia for the election of a ha,aku Khan. Hulagu left behind only two tumens 20, men under the kha of his favorite general Naiman Kitbuqa Noyan, a Nestorian Christian.
Upon receiving news of Hulagu’s departure, Qutuz quickly assembled a large army at Cairo and invaded Palestine. Qutuz allied himself with a fellow Mamluk, Baibarswho wanted to avenge for Islam the Mongols’ capture of Damascus, their looting of Baghdad and their conquest of Syria. The Mongols, for their part, attempted to form a Frankish-Mongol alliance with or at least, demand the submission of the remnant of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, now centered on Acre, but Pope Alexander IV had forbidden such an alliance.
Tensions between Franks and Mongols also increased when Julian of Sidon caused an incident resulting in the death of one of Kitbuqa’s grandsons. Angered, Kitbuqa had sacked Sidon. The Barons of Acre, contacted by the Mongols, had also been approached by the Mamluks, seeking military assistance against the Mongols.
Hulagu Khan Destroyed Thousands Of Priceless Ancient Books Kept In The House Of Wisdom In Baghdad
Although the Mamluks were traditional enemies of the Franks, the Barons of Acre recognized the Mongols as the more immediate menace. Instead of taking sides, the Crusaders opted for a position of cautious neutrality between the two forces. In an unusual move, however, they allowed the Egyptian Mamluks to march northward without hindrance through Crusader territory and even let them camp near Acre to resupply. They met the Mongol army of about 20, in the Battle of Ain Jalut and fought relentlessly for many hours.
The Mamluk leader Baibars mostly implemented hit-and-run tactics in an attempt to lure the Mongol forces into chasing him. Baibars and Qutuz had hidden the bulk of their forces in kjan hills to wait in ambush for the Mongols to come into range. The Mongol leader Kitbuqa, already provoked by the constant fleeing of Baibars and his troops, decided to march forwards with all his troops on the trail of the fleeing Egyptians. When the Mongols reached the highlands, Egyptians appeared from hiding, and the Balaku found themselves surrounded by enemy forces as the hidden troops hit them from the sides and Qutuz attacked the Mongol rear.
Estimates of the size of the Egyptian army range from 24, toThe Mongols broke free of the trap and even mounted a temporarily successful counterattack, but their numbers had been depleted to the point that the outcome was inevitable. When the battle finally ended, the Egyptian army had accomplished what had never been done before, defeating a Mongol army in close combat.
Almost the whole Mongol army that had remained in the region, including Kitbuqa, were either killed or yalaku that day. The battle of Ain Jalut established a low-water mark for the Mongol conquest.
The Mongol invasion east and south came to a stop after Ain Galaku. After the succession was settled and his brother Kublai Khan was established as Great Khan, Hulagu returned to his lands by When he massed his armies to attack the Mamluks and avenge the defeat at Ayn Jalut, however, he was instead drawn into civil war with Batu Khan ‘s brother Berke.
Berke Khan, a Muslim convert, had promised retribution in his rage after Hulagu’s sack of Baghdad and allied himself with the Mamluks. He initiated a series of raids on Hulagu’s territories, led by Nogai Khan.
This mhan the first open war between Mongols and signaled the end of the unified empire. Even while Berke was Muslim he was at first desisting from the idea of fighting Hulagu out of Mongol brotherhood, he said Mongols are killed by Mongol swords. If we were united, then we would have conquered all of the world. Hulagu sent multiple communications to Europe in an attempt to establish a Franco-Mongol alliance against the Muslims. From the head of the Mongol army, anxious to devastate the perfidious nation of the Saracens, with the good-will support of the Christian faith Despite many attempts, neither Hulagu nor his successors were able to form an alliance with Europe, although Mongol culture in the West was in vogue in the 13th century.
Hulagu Khan – Wikipedia
Many new-born children in Italy were named after Mongol rulers, including Hlaaku His funeral was the only Ilkhanate funeral to feature human sacrifice. Hulagu Khan laid the foundations of the Ilkhanate and thus paved the way for the later Safavid dynastic state, and ultimately the modern country of Iran.
Hulagu’s conquests also opened Iran to both European influence from the west and Chinese influence from the east. This, combined with patronage from his successors, would develop Iran’s distinctive excellence in architecture. Under Hulagu’s dynasty, Iranian historians began writing in Persian rather than Arabic.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the founder of the Ilkhanate. Shahi IslandLake Urmia. Doquz Khatun Yesuncin Khatun. Tekuder Abaqa Taraqai Mengu Timur. Mongol invasions and conquests. Khab of Baghdad Mongol raids into Palestine. Battle of Ain Jalut. The history of Persia. To which is added, an abridgment of the lives of the hslaku of Harmuz, halakj Ormuz. Retrieved 6 May Retrieved 21 March This called for the employment of engineers to engage in mining operations, to halakh siege engines and artillery, and to concoct and use incendiary and explosive devices.
For instance, Hulagu, who led Mongol forces into the Middle East during the second wave of the invasions inhad with him a thousand squads of engineers, evidently of north Chinese or perhaps Khitan provenance.
Volume 2 of Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia illustrated ed. With him were the King of Armenia and the Prince of Antioch. The citizens of the ancient capital of the Caliphate saw for the first time for six centuries knan Christian potentates ride in triumph through their streets”, Runcimanp. Buddhism and Islam on the Silk Road.