In economics an isocost line shows all combinations of inputs which cost the same total amount The isocost line is combined with the isoquant map to determine the optimal production point at any given level of output. Specifically, the point. Isocost-isoquant analysis: theory of production: The production function: a figure known as an isoquant diagram (Figure 1). In the graph, goldsmith-hours per. Isoquants: An isoquant (equal quantity) is a curve that shows the combinations of certain inputs such as Labor (L) and Capital (K) that will produce a certain.

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For this, it will choose that combination which minimises its cost of production for a given output.

Constant returns to scale also result when factors of production are perfectly divisible, substitutable, homogeneous osoquant their supplies are perfectly elastic at given prices.

The firm would not operate on the positively sloped portion of an isoquant because it could produce the same level of quantity with less capital and labour. Iso cost line shows various combinations of labour and capital that the firm can buy for a given factor prices.

The supply curve shows the influence of price on the quantity supplied when other factors that influence quantity supplied are hel Therefore IQ isoclst lQ 1 isofost be isoquants, as shown in Figure These curves are also known as outlay ixoquant, price lines, input-price lines, factor-cost lines, constant-outlay lines, etc. Iso quants are equal revenue lines. This analysis is based on the same assumptions, as given above.

See full list of related question in B. The iso quant closer to the origin indicates a lower level of output. It can be concluded from the above analysis that under a homogeneous production function when a fixed isqouant is combined with a variable factor, the marginal returns of the variable factor diminish when there are constant, diminishing and increasing returns to scale.

It means that the isoquant must be convex to the origin at every point. If a return is submitted after the due date, the following consequences will be applicable: Thus, the marginal rate of technical substitution diminishes as labour is substituted for capital.

This is explained in Panel B of Figure So the condition that the MRTS be equal to the input cost ratio is equivalent to the condition that the marginal product per dollar is equal for the two inputs.


Indivisible factors may become inefficient and less productive. It looks for that factor combination that is on the lowest of the isocost lines. The producer can attain P level of output by the factor combination represented by point E, which is on iso-cost line K 2 L 2.

The firm experiences internal diseconomies. Top 14 Peculiarities of Labour Production Economics.

Explain a firm’s equilibrium with the help of isoquants and isocost line.

The least cost factor combination can be determined by imposing the isoquant map on isocost line. There are two essential or second order conditions for the equilibrium of the firm.

Retrieved from ” https: This page was last edited on 20 Novemberat Isoquants, abbreviated as IQs, possess the same properties as ieocost of the indifference curves. The absolute value of the slope of the isocost line, with capital plotted vertically and labour plotted horizontally, equals the ratio of unit costs of labour and capital. If he were producing this output with the combination D, he would be employing CT less of capital and relatively TD more of labour.

A set of isocost lines can be drawn for different levels of factor prices, or different sums of money.

We can see that the shape of isoquant plays an important a role in the production theory as the shape of indifference curve in the consumption theory.

See full list of related question in economics. isocpst

Table 1 illustrates, by using hypothetical numbers, seven alternative methods of producing six units of output. At point S, the marginal rate of technical substitution between the two factors increases if move iskquant the right m or left on the curve lQ 1. Thus these external economies are also the cause of increasing returns to scale. Specifically, the point of tangency between any isoquant and an isocost osoquant gives the lowest-cost combination of inputs that can produce the level of output associated with that isoquant.


Also called pay-as-you-earn scheme, advance tax is the income tax payabl Community Community portal Web chat Mailing list. A change in factor price makes changes in the slope of isocost lines as shown in the figure. In the theory of production, the profit maximisation firm is in equilibrium when, given osocost cost-price function, it maximises its profits on the basis of the least cost combination of factors.


This page was last modified on 16 Aprilat But this is logically absurd because S combination is as productive as R and A combination produces as much as B.

Isoquant and Isocost Lines (With Diagram) | Economics

An isoquant shows what a firm is desirous of producing. Further, as the firm expands, it enjoys internal economies of production. The producer minimises his costs by employing OB amount of capital plus OA amount of labour determined, by the tangency of the iso-quant P with the iso-cost line K 2 L 2.

Individuals have to pay tax on the following incomes: Thus with specialization, efficiency increases and increasing returns to scale follow. This indicates that one factor can be used a little more and other factor a little less, without changing the level of output. This shows that the marginal returns of the variable factor, labour, have increased even when there are increasing returns to scale.

So, like the consumer the producer has also to operate under a budget resource constraint. The firm cannot attain a higher level of output such as isoquant because of the cost constraint. Thus the least cost combination of factors refers to a firm producing the largest volume of output from a given cost and producing a given level of output with the minimum cost when the factors are combined in an optimum manner.

The significance of factors of productive resources is that, any two factors are substitutable e. The first condition is that the slope of the isocost line must equal the slope of the isoquant curve. To find the least cost combination of inputs to produce a given output, we need to construct such equal cost lines or isocost lines. After reading this chapter, you are expected to learn about: